(Advanced Digital Network) --
Usually refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.
A small Java program
that can be embedded in an HTML page.
Applets differ from full-fledged Java
applications in that they are not allowed to
access certain resources on the local computer,
such as files and serial devices (modems,
printers, etc.), and are prohibited from
communicating with most other computers across a
network. The current rule is that an applet can
only make an Internet connection to the computer
from which the applet was sent.
A tool (software) for finding
files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You
need to know the exact file name or a substring
(Advanced Research Projects
Agency Network) -- The precursor to the
Internet. Developed in the late 60’s and
early 70’s by the US Department of Defense as an
experiment in wide-area-networking that would
survive a nuclear war.
(American Standard Code for
Information Interchange) -- This is the de facto
world-wide standard for the code numbers used by
computers to represent all the upper and
lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation,
etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of
which can be represented by a 7 digit binary
number: 0000000 through 1111111.
A high-speed line or series
of connections that forms a major pathway within
a network. The term is relative as a backbone in
a small network will likely be much
smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large
How much stuff you can send
through a connection. Usually measured in
bits-per-second. A full page of English text is
about 16,000 bits. A fast modem can move about
15,000 bits in one second. Full-motion
full-screen video would require roughly
10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on
In common usage the baud rate
of a modem is how many bits it can
send or receive per second. Technically, baud is
the number of times per second that the carrier
signal shifts value - for example a 1200
bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud,
but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300 = 1200
bits per second).
(Bulletin Board System) -- A
computerized meeting and announcement system
that allows people to carry on discussions,
upload and download files, and make
announcements without the people being connected
to the computer at the same time. There are many
thousands (millions?) of BBS’s around the world,
most are very small, running on a single IBM
clone PC with 1 or 2 phone lines. Some are very
large and the line between a BBS and a system
like CompuServe gets crossed at some point, but
it is not clearly drawn.
(BINary HEXadecimal) -- A
method for converting non-text files (non-ASCII)
into ASCII. This is needed because
Internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
(Binary DigIT) -- A single
digit number in base-2, in other words, either a
1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized
data. Bandwidth is usually measured in
(Because It’s Time NETwork
(or Because It’s There NETwork)) -- A network
of educational sites separate from the Internet,
but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET
and the Internet. Listservs®, the most
popular form of e-mail discussion groups,
originated on BITNET. BITNET machines are
usually mainframes running the VMS operating
system, and the network is probably the only
international network that is shrinking.
(Bits-Per-Second) -- A
measurement of how fast data is moved from one
place to another. A 28.8 modem can move
28,800 bits per second.
A Client program
(software) that is used to look at various kinds
of Internet resources.
Home Page (or Homepage)
(By The Way) -- A shorthand
appended to a comment written in an online
A set of Bits that represent
a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in
a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the
measurement is being made.
An issuer of Security
Certificates used in SSL connections.
Security Certificate ,
(Common Gateway Interface) --
A set of rules that describe how a Web
Server communicates with another piece of
software on the same machine, and how the other
piece of software (the “CGI program”) talks to
the web server. Any piece of software can be a
CGI program if it handles input and output
according to the CGI standard.
Usually a CGI program is a small program that
takes data from a web server and does something
with it, like putting the content of a form into
an e-mail message, or turning the data into a
You can often see that a CGI program is being
used by seeing “cgi-bin” in a URL, but not
The most common name of a
directory on a web server in which CGI
programs are stored.
The “bin” part of “cgi-bin” is a shorthand
version of “binary”, because once upon a time,
most programs were refered to as “binaries”. In
real life, most programs found in cgi-bin
directories are text files -- scripts that are
executed by binaries located elsewhere on the
A software program that is
used to contact and obtain data from a Server
software program on another computer, often
across a great distance. Each Client
program is designed to work with one or more
specific kinds of Server programs, and
each Server requires a specific kind of
Client. A Web Browser is a
specific kind of Client.
Most often used to refer to
having a server that belongs to one
person or group physically located on an
Internet-connected network that
belongs to another person or group. Usually this
is done because the server owner wants their
machine to be on a high-speed Internet
connection and/or they do not want the security
risks of having the server on thier own network.
The most common meaning of
“Cookie” on the Internet refers to a piece of
information sent by a Web Server to a Web
Browser that the Browser software is
expected to save and to send back to the Server
whenever the browser makes additional requests
from the Server.
Depending on the type of Cookie used, and the
Browser’s settings, the Browser may accept or
not accept the Cookie, and may save the Cookie
for either a short time or a long time.
Cookies might contain information such as login
or registration information, online “shopping
cart” information, user preferences, etc.
When a Server receives a request from a Browser
that includes a Cookie, the Server is able to
use the information stored in the Cookie. For
example, the Server might customize what is sent
back to the user, or keep a log of particular
Cookies are usually set to expire after a
predetermined amount of time and are usually
saved in memory until the Browser software is
closed down, at which time they may be saved to
disk if their “expire time” has not been
Cookies do not read your hard
drive and send your life story to the CIA, but
they can be used to gather more information
about a user than would be possible without
Cyberpunk was originally a
cultural sub-genre of science fiction taking
place in a not-so-distant, dystopian,
over-industrialized society. The term grew out
of the work of William Gibson and Bruce Sterling
and has evolved into a cultural label
encompassing many different kinds of human,
machine, and punk attitudes. It includes
clothing and lifestyle choices as well.
Term originated by author
William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer
the word Cyberspace is currently used to
describe the whole range of information
resources available through computer networks.
The digital version of
literati, it is a reference to a vague cloud of
people seen to be knowledgeable, hip, or
otherwise in-the-know in regards to the digital
(Digital Subscriber Line) --
A method for moving data over regular phone
lines. A DSL circuit is much faster than a
regular phone connection, and the wires coming
into the subscriber’s premises are the same
(copper) wires used for regular phone service. A
DSL circuit must be configured to connect two
specific locations, similar to a leased line.
A commonly discussed configuration of DSL allows
downloads at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not
megabytes) per second, and
uploads at speeds of 128 kilobits per second.
This arrangement is called ADSL: “Asymmetric”
Digital Subscriber Line.
Another common configuration is symmetrical: 384
Kilobits per second in both directions.
In theory ADSL allows download speeds of up to 9
megabits per second and upload speeds of up to
640 kilobits per second.
DSL is now a popular alternative to Leased
Lines and ISDN, being faster than
ISDN and less costly than traditional Leased
The unique name that
identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always
have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The
part on the left is the most specific, and the
part on the right is the most general. A given
machine may have more than one Domain Name but a
given Domain Name points to only one machine.
For example, the domain names:
can all refer to the same machine, but each
domain name can refer to no more than one
Usually, all of the machines on a given
Network will have the same thing as the
right-hand portion of their Domain Names (matisse.net
in the examples above). It is also possible for
a Domain Name to exist but not be connected to
an actual machine. This is often done so that a
group or business can have an Internet e-mail
address without having to establish a real
Internet site. In these cases, some real
Internet machine must handle the mail on behalf
of the listed Domain Name.
(Electronic Mail) --
Messages, usually text, sent from one person to
another via computer. E-mail can also be sent
automatically to a large number of addresses (Mailing
A very common method of
networking computers in a LAN. Ethernet
will handle about 10,000,000 bits-per-second and
can be used with almost any kind of computer.
(Frequently Asked Questions)
-- FAQs are documents that list and answer the
most common questions on a particular subject.
There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as
diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs
are usually written by people who have tired of
answering the same question over and over.
(Fiber Distributed Data
Interface) -- A standard for transmitting data
on optical fiber cables at a rate of around
100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as
Ethernet, about twice as fast as T-3).
An Internet software tool for
locating people on other Internet sites. Finger
is also sometimes used to give access to
non-personal information, but the most common
use is to see if a person has an account at a
particular Internet site. Many sites do not
allow incoming Finger requests, but many do.
A combination of hardware and
software that separates a LAN into two or
more parts for security purposes.
Originally, flame meant to
carry forth in a passionate manner in the spirit
of honorable debate. Flames most often involved
the use of flowery language and flaming well was
an art form. More recently flame has come to
refer to any kind of derogatory comment no
matter how witless or crude.
When an online discussion
degenerates into a series of personal attacks
against the debators, rather than discussion of
their positions. A heated exchange.
(File Transfer Protocol) -- A
very common method of moving files between two
Internet sites. FTP is a special way to login
to another Internet site for the purposes of
retrieving and/or sending files. There are many
Internet sites that have established publicly
accessible repositories of material that can be
obtained using FTP, by logging in using the
account name anonymous, thus these sites are
called anonymous ftp servers.
The technical meaning is a
hardware or software set-up that translates
between two dissimilar protocols, for example
Prodigy has a gateway that translates between
its internal, proprietary e-mail format and
Internet e-mail format. Another, sloppier
meaning of gateway is to describe any mechanism
for providing access to another system, e.g. AOL
might be called a gateway to the Internet.
(Graphic Interchange Format)
-- A common format for image files, especially
suitable for images containing large areas of
the same color. GIF format files of simple
images are often smaller than the same file
would be if stored in JPEG format, but
GIF format does not store photographic images as
well as JPEG.
1000 or 1024 Megabytes,
depending on who is measuring.
A widely successful method of
making menus of material available over the
Internet. Gopher is a Client and
Server style program, which requires that
the user have a Gopher Client program.
Although Gopher spread rapidly across the globe
in only a couple of years, it has been largely
supplanted by Hypertext, also known as WWW
(World Wide Web). There are still thousands
of Gopher Servers on the Internet and we
can expect they will remain for a while.
As used in reference to the
World Wide Web, “hit” means a single request
from a web browser for a single item from
a web server; thus in order for a web
browser to display a page that contains 3
graphics, 4 “hits” would occur at the server: 1
for the HTML page, and one for each of
the 3 graphics.
“hits” are often used as a very rough measure of
load on a server, e.g. “Our server has been
getting 300,000 hits per month.” Because each
“hit” can represent anything from a request for
a tiny document (or even a request for a missing
document) all the way to a request that requires
some significant extra processing (such as a
complex search request), the actual load on a
machine from 1 hit is almost impossible to
Home Page (or Homepage)
Several meanings. Originally,
the web page that your browser is
set to use when it starts up. The more common
meaning refers to the main web page for a
business, organization, person or simply the
main page out of a collection of web pages, e.g.
“Check out so-and-so’s new Home Page.”
Another sloppier use of the term refers to
practically any web page as a “homepage,” e.g.
“That web site has 65 homepages and none of them
Any computer on a network
that is a repository for services available to
other computers on the network. It is
quite common to have one host machine provide
several services, such as WWW and
(HyperText Markup Language)
-- The coding language used to create
Hypertext documents for use on the World
Wide Web. HTML looks a lot like
old-fashioned typesetting code, where you
surround a block of text with codes that
indicate how it should appear, additionally, in
HTML you can specify that a block of text, or a
word, is linked to another file on the Internet.
HTML files are meant to be viewed using a
World Wide Web Client Program, such as
Netscape or Mosaic.
(HyperText Transfer Protocol)
-- The protocol for moving hypertext
files across the Internet. Requires a
HTTP client program on one end, and an
HTTP server program on the other end.
HTTP is the most important protocol used in the
World Wide Web (WWW).
Generally, any text that
contains links to other documents - words or
phrases in the document that can be chosen by a
reader and which cause another document to be
retrieved and displayed.
(In My Humble Opinion) -- A
shorthand appended to a comment written in an
online forum, IMHO indicates that the writer is
aware that they are expressing a debatable view,
probably on a subject already under discussion.
One of may such shorthands in common use online,
especially in discussion forums.
(Upper case I) The
vast collection of inter-connected networks that
all use the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved
from the ARPANET of the late 60’s and
early 70’s. The Internet now (July 1995)
connects roughly 60,000 independent networks
into a vast global internet.
(Lower case i) Any
time you connect 2 or more networks
together, you have an internet - as in
inter-national or inter-state.
A private network
inside a company or organization that uses the
same kinds of software that you would find on
the public Internet, but that is only for
As the Internet has become more popular many of
the tools used on the Internet are being used in
private networks, for example, many companies
have web servers that are available only to
Note that an Intranet may not actually be an
internet -- it may simply be a
(Internet Protocol Number) --
Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number
consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g.
Every machine that is on the Internet has a
unique IP number - if a machine does not have an
IP number, it is not really on the Internet.
Most machines also have one or more Domain
Names that are easier for people to
Domain Name ,
(Internet Relay Chat) --
Basically a huge multi-user live chat facility.
There are a number of major IRC servers
around the world which are linked to each other.
Anyone can create a channel and anything that
anyone types in a given channel is seen by all
others in the channel. Private channels can (and
are) created for multi-person conference calls.
(Integrated Services Digital
Network) -- Basically a way to move more data
over existing regular phone lines. ISDN is
rapidly becoming available to much of the USA
and in most markets it is priced very comparably
to standard analog phone circuits. It can
provide speeds of roughly 128,000
bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In
practice, most people will be limited to 56,000
or 64,000 bits-per-second.
(Internet Service Provider)
-- An institution that provides access to the
Internet in some form, usually for money.
Java is a network-oriented
programming language invented by Sun
Microsystems that is specifically designed for
writing programs that can be safely downloaded
to your computer through the Internet and
immediately run without fear of viruses or other
harm to your computer or files. Using small Java
programs (called "Applets"), Web pages
can include functions such as animations,
calculators, and other fancy tricks.
We can expect to see a huge variety of features
added to the Web using Java, since you can write
a Java program to do almost anything a regular
computer program can do, and then include that
Java program in a Web page.
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language that is mostly used in web pages,
usually to add features that make the web page
an HTML file it relies upon the browser
combined with Cascading Style Sheets
(CSS), and later versions of HTML (4.0 and
later) the result is often called DHTML.
Netscape and was going to be called
"LiveScript", but the name was changed to
(Java Development Kit) -- A
software development package from Sun
Microsystems that implements the basic set of
tools needed to write, test and debug Java
applications and applets
(Joint Photographic Experts
Group) -- JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a
format for image files. JPEG format is preferred
to the GIF format for photographic images
as opposed to line art or simple logo art.
A thousand bytes. Actually,
usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.
(Local Area Network) -- A
computer network limited to the immediate area,
usually the same building or floor of a
Refers to a phone line that
is rented for exclusive 24-hour, 7 -days-a-week
use from your location to another location. The
highest speed data connections require a leased
The most common kind of
mail list, "Listserv" is a registered
trademark of L-Soft international, Inc.
Listservs originated on BITNET but they
are now common on the Internet.
Noun or a verb. Noun: The
account name used to gain access to a computer
system. Not a secret (contrast with Password).
Verb: The act of entering into a computer
system, e.g. Login to the WELL and then go to
the GBN conference.
(or Mailing List) A
(usually automated) system that allows people to
send e-mail to one address, whereupon
their message is copied and sent to all of the
other subscribers to the mail list. In this way,
people who have many different kinds of e-mail
access can participate in discussions together.
A million bytes.
Actually, technically, 1024 kilobytes.
(Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) -- The standard for attaching
non-text files to standard Internet mail
messages. Non-text files include graphics,
spreadsheets, formatted word-processor
documents, sound files, etc.
An email program is said to be MIME Compliant if
it can both send and receive files using the
When non-text files are sent using the MIME
standard they are converted (encoded) into text
- although the resulting text is not really
Generally speaking the MIME standard is a way of
specifying both the type of file being sent
(e.g. a Quicktime™ video file), and the method
that should be used to turn it back into its
Besides email software, the MIME standard is
also universally used by Web Servers to
identify the files they are sending to Web
Clients, in this way new file formats can be
accommodated simply by updating the Browsers’
list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate
software for handling each type.
Generally speaking, “to
mirror” is to maintain an exact copy of
something. Probably the most common use of the
term on the Internet refers to “mirror sites”
which are web sites, or FTP sites
that maintain exact copies of material
originated at another location, usually in order
to provide more widespread access to the
Another common use of the term “mirror” refers
to an arrangement where information is written
to more than one hard disk simultaneously, so
that if one disk fails, the computer keeps on
working without losing anything.
(MOdulator, DEModulator) -- A
device that you connect to your computer and to
a phone line, that allows the computer to talk
to other computers through the phone system.
Basically, modems do for computers what a
telephone does for humans.
(Mud, Object Oriented) -- One
of several kinds of multi-user role-playing
environments, so far only text-based.
The first WWW browser
that was available for the Macintosh, Windows,
and UNIX all with the same interface. Mosaic
really started the popularity of the Web. The
source-code to Mosaic has been licensed by
several companies and there are several other
pieces of software as good or better than
Mosaic, most notably, Netscape.
(Multi-User Dungeon or
Dimension) -- A (usually text-based) multi-user
simulation environment. Some are purely for fun
and flirting, others are used for serious
software development, or education purposes and
all that lies in between. A significant feature
of most MUDs is that users can create things
that stay after they leave and which other users
can interact with in their absence, thus
allowing a world to be built gradually and
Environment) -- One kind of MUD - usually with
little or no violence.
The etiquette on the
Derived from the term
citizen, referring to a citizen of the
Internet, or someone who uses networked
resources. The term connotes civic
responsibility and participation.
A WWW Browser and the
name of a company. The Netscape (tm) browser was
originally based on the Mosaic program
developed at the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is
widely recognized as the best and most popular
web browser. Netscape corporation also produces
web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed
and interface over other browsers, and has also
engendered debate by creating new elements for
the HTML language used by Web pages --
but the Netscape extensions to HTML are not
The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen,
was hired away from the NCSA by Jim Clark, and
they founded a company called Mosaic
Communications and soon changed the name to
Netscape Communications Corporation.
Any time you connect 2 or
more computers together so that they can share
resources, you have a computer network. Connect
2 or more networks together and you have an
The name for discussion
groups on USENET.
Center) -- Generally, any office that handles
information for a network. The most famous of
these on the Internet is the InterNIC, which is
where new domain names are registered.
Another definition: NIC also refers to Network
Interface Card which plugs into a computer and
adapts the network interface to the appropriate
standard. ISA, PCI, and PCMCIA cards are all
examples of NICs.
(Network News Transport
Protocol) -- The protocol used by client
and server software to carry USENET
postings back and forth over a TCP/IP
network. If you are using any of the more
common software such as Netscape,
Nuntius, Internet Explorer, etc. to participate
in newsgroups then you are benefiting
from an NNTP connection.
Any single computer connected
to a network.
The method used to move data
around on the Internet. In packet
switching, all the data coming out of a machine
is broken up into chunks, each chunk has the
address of where it came from and where it is
going. This enables chunks of data from many
different sources to co-mingle on the same
lines, and be sorted and directed to different
routes by special machines along the way. This
way many people can use the same lines at the
A code used to gain access to
a locked system. Good passwords contain letters
and non-letters and are not simple combinations
such as virtue7. A good password might
A (usually small) piece of
software that adds features to a larger piece of
software. Common examples are plug-ins for the
Netscape® browser and web server.
Adobe Photoshop® also uses plug-ins.
The idea behind plug-in’s is that a small piece
of software is loaded into memory by the larger
program, adding a new feature, and that users
need only install the few plug-ins that they
need, out of a much larger pool of
possibilities. Plug-ins are usually created by
people other than the publishers of the software
the plug-in works with.
(Point of Presence, also Post
Office Protocol) -- Two commonly used meanings:
Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A
Point of Presence usually means a city or
location where a network can be connected to,
often with dial up phone lines. So if an
Internet company says they will soon have a POP
in Belgrade, it means that they will soon have a
local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place
where leased lines can connect to their network.
A second meaning, Post Office Protocol refers to
the way e-mail software such as Eudora gets mail
from a mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP,
or shell account you almost always get a POP
account with it, and it is this POP account that
you tell your e-mail software to use to get your
3 meanings. First and most
generally, a place where information goes into
or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial
port on a personal computer is where a modem
would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number
that is part of a URL, appearing after a
colon (:) right after the domain name.
Every service on an Internet server
listens on a particular port number on that
server. Most services have standard port
numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on
port 80. Services can also listen on
non-standard ports, in which case the port
number must be specified in a URL when accessing
the server, so you might see a URL of the form:
shows a gopher server running on a non-standard
port (the standard gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece
of software to bring it from one type of
computer system to another, e.g. to translate a
Windows program so that is will run on a
Domain Name ,
Usually used as a marketing
term to described a Web site that is or is
intended to be the first place people see when
using the Web. Typically a "Portal site" has a
catalog of web sites, a search engine, or both.
A Portal site may also offer email and other
service to entice people to use that site as
their main "point of entry" (hence "portal") to
A single message entered into
a network communications system.
E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup
or message board.
(Point to Point Protocol) --
Most well known as a protocol that allows a
computer to use a regular telephone line and a
modem to make TCP/IP connections
and thus be really and truly on the Internet.
IP Number ,
(Public Switched Telephone
Network) -- The regular old-fashioned telephone
(Request For Comments) -- The
name of the result and the process for creating
a standard on the Internet. New standards
are proposed and published on line, as a Request
For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task
Force is a consensus-building body that
facilitates discussion, and eventually a new
standard is established, but the reference
number/name for the standard retains the acronym
RFC, e.g. the official standard for e-mail
is RFC 822.
A special-purpose computer
(or software package) that handles the
connection between 2 or more networks.
Routers spend all their time looking at the
destination addresses of the packets
passing through them and deciding which route to
send them on.
A chunk of information (often
stored as a text file) that is used by the
SSL protocol to establish a secure
Security Certificates contain information about
who it belongs to, who it was issued by, a
unique serial number or other unique
identification, valid dates, and an encrypted
“fingerprint” that can be used to verify the
contents of the certificate.
In order for an SSL connection to be created
both sides must have a valid Security
Certificate Authority ,
A computer, or a software
package, that provides a specific kind of
service to client software running on
other computers. The term can refer to a
particular piece of software, such as a WWW
server, or to the machine on which the software
is running, e.g.Our mail server is down today,
that’s why e-mail isn’t getting out. A single
server machine could have several different
server software packages running on it, thus
providing many different servers to clients
on the network.
(Serial Line Internet
Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular
telephone line (a serial line) and a modem
to connect a computer as a real Internet
site. SLIP is gradually being replaced by PPP.
(Switched Multimegabit Data
Service) -- A new standard for very high-speed
(Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send
electronic mail on the Internet.
SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a
program sending mail and a program receiving
mail should interact.
Almost all Internet email is sent and received
by clients and servers using SMTP,
thus if one wanted to set up an email server on
the Internet one would look for email server
software that supports SMTP.
(Simple Network Management
Protocol) -- A set of standards for
communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP
network. Examples of these devices
include routers, hubs, and switches.
A device is said to be “SNMP compatible” if it
can be monitored and/or controlled using SNMP
messages. SNMP messages are known as “PDU’s” -
Protocol Data Units.
Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP
“agent” software to receive, send, and act upon
Software for managing devices via SNMP are
available for every kind of commonly used
computer and are often bundled along with the
device they are designed to manage. Some SNMP
software is designed to handle a wide variety of
Spam (or Spamming)
An inappropriate attempt to
use a mailing list, or USENET or
other networked communications facility as if it
was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by
sending the same message to a large number of
people who didn’t ask for it. The term probably
comes from a famous Monty Python skit which
featured the word spam repeated over and over.
The term may also have come from someone’s low
opinion of the food product with the same name,
which is generally perceived as a generic
content-free waste of resources. (Spam is a
registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for
its processed meat product.)
E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting
the same message to each.
mail list ,
(Structured Query Language)
-- A specialized programming language for
sending queries to databases. Most
industrial-strength and many smaller database
applications can be addressed using SQL. Each
specific application will have its own version
of SQL implementing features unique to that
application, but all SQL-capable databases
support a common subset of SQL.
(Secure Sockets Layer) -- A
protocol designed by Netscape Communications to
enable encrypted, authenticated communications
across the Internet.
SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in
communications between web browsers and
web servers. URL’s that begin with
“https” indicate that an SSL connection will be
SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy,
Authentication, and Message Integrity.
In an SSL connection each side of the connection
must have a Security Certificate, which
each side’s software sends to the other. Each
side then encrypts what it sends using
information from both its own and the other
side’s Certificate, ensuring that only the
intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the
other side can be sure the data came from the
place it claims to have come from, and that the
message has not been tampered with.
Security Certificate ,
(System Operator) -- Anyone
responsible for the physical operations of a
computer system or network resource. A System
Administrator decides how often backups and
maintenance should be performed and the System
Operator performs those tasks.
connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000
bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical
capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte
in less than 10 seconds. That is still not fast
enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for
which you need at least 10,000,000
bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed
commonly used to connect networks to the
connection capable of carrying data at
44,736,000 bits-per-second. This is more than
enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.
Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite
of protocols that defines the Internet.
Originally designed for the UNIX
operating system, TCP/IP software is now
available for every major kind of computer
operating system. To be truly on the Internet,
your computer must have TCP/IP software.
IP Number ,
The command and program used
to login from one Internet site to
another. The telnet command/program gets you to
the login: prompt of another host.
A device that allows you to
send commands to a computer somewhere else. At a
minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a
display screen and some simple circuitry.
Usually you will use terminal software in a
personal computer - the software pretends to be
(emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to
type commands to a computer somewhere else.
A special purpose computer
that has places to plug in many modems on
one side, and a connection to a LAN or
host machine on the other side. Thus the
terminal server does the work of answering the
calls and passes the connections on to the
appropriate node. Most terminal servers
can provide PPP or SLIP services
if connected to the Internet.
(User Datagram Protocol) --
One of the protocols for data transfer that is
part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
UDP is a “stateless” protocol in that UDP makes
no provision for acknowledgement of packets
A computer operating system
(the basic software running on a computer,
underneath things like word processors and
spreadsheets). UNIX is designed to be used by
many people at the same time (it is multi-user)
and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most
common operating system for servers on
(Uniform Resource Locator) --
The standard way to give the address of any
resource on the Internet that is part of the
World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this:
The most common way to use a URL is to enter
into a WWW browser program, such as Netscape, or
A world-wide system of
discussion groups, with comments passed among
hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all
USENET machines are on the Internet,
maybe half. USENET is completely decentralized,
with over 10,000 discussion areas, called
(Unix to Unix Encoding) -- A
method for converting files from Binary
to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent
across the Internet via e-mail.
(Very Easy Rodent Oriented
Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) --
Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica
is a constantly updated database of the names of
almost every menu item on thousands of gopher
servers. The Veronica database can be searched
from most major gopher menus.
(Virtual Private Network) --
Usually refers to a network in which some
of the parts are connected using the public
Internet, but the data sent across the
Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is
A typical example would be a
company network where there are two offices in
different cities. Using the Internet the two
offices mereg their networks into one network,
but encrypt traffic that uses the Internet link.
(Wide Area Information
Servers) -- A commercial software package that
allows the indexing of huge quantities of
information, and then making those indices
searchable across networks such as the
Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is
that the search results are ranked (scored)
according to how relevant the hits are, and that
subsequent searches can find more stuff like
that last batch and thus refine the search
(Wide Area Network) -- Any
internet or network that covers an
area larger than a single building or campus.
(World Wide Web) --
Frequently used (incorrectly) when referring to
"The Internet", WWW has two major meanings -
First, loosely used: the whole constellation of
resources that can be accessed using Gopher,
FTP, HTTP, telnet, USENET, WAIS and some
other tools. Second, the universe of hypertext
servers (HTTP servers) which are the
servers that allow text, graphics, sound files,
etc. to be mixed together.